Global, regional, and national burden of respiratory tract cancers and associated risk factors from 1990 to 2019 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Ebrahimi, Hedyeh and Aryan, Zahra and Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi and Bisignano, Catherine and Rezaei, Shahabeddin and Pishgar, Farhad and Force, Lisa M. and Abolhassani, Hassan and Abu-Gharbieh, Eman and Advani, Shailesh M. and Ahmad, Sohail and Alahdab, Fares and Alipour, Vahid and Aljunid, Syed Mohamed and Amini, Saeed and Ancuceanu, Robert and Andrei, Catalina Liliana and Andrei, Tudorel and Arabloo, Jalal and Arab-Zozani, Morteza and Asaad, Malke and Ausloos, Marcel and Awedew, Atalel Fentahun and Baig, Atif Amin and Bijani, Ali and Biondi, Antonio and Bjorge, Tone and Braithwaite, Dejana and Brauer, Michael and Brenner, Hermann and Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa and Butt, Zahid A. and Carreras, Giulia and Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A. and Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel and Chu, Dinh-Toi and Chung, Michael T. and Cohen, Aaron J. and Compton, Kelly and Dagnew, Baye and Dai, Xiaochen and Dandona, Lalit and Dandona, Rakhi and Dean, Frances E. and Molla, Meseret Derbew and Desta, Abebaw Alemayehu and Driscoll, Tim Robert and Faraon, Emerito Jose A. and Faris, Pawan Sirwan and Filip, Irina and Fischer, Florian and Fu, Weijia and Gallus, Silvano and Gebregiorgis, Birhan Gebresillassie and Ghashghaee, Ahmad and Golechha, Mahaveer and Gonfa, Kebebe Bekele and Gorini, Giuseppe and Garcia Goulart, Barbara Niegia and Ribeiro Guerra, Maximiliano and Hafezi-Nejad, Nima and Hamidi, Samer and Hay, Simon I. and Herteliu, Claudiu and Hoang, Chi Linh and Horita, Nobuyuki and Hostiuc, Mihaela and Househ, Mowafa and Iavicoli, Ivo and Ilic, Irena M. and Ilic, Milena D. and Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi and Islami, Farhad and Kamath, Ashwin and Kaur, Supreet and Khalilov, Rovshan and Khan, Ejaz Ahmad and Kocarnik, Jonathan M. and Bicer, Burcu Kucuk and Kumar, G. Anil and La Vecchia, Carlo and Lan, Qing and Landires, Ivan and Lasrado, Savita and Lauriola, Paolo and Leong, Elvynna and Li, Bingyu and Lim, Stephen S. and Lopez, Alan D. and Majeed, Azeem and Malekzadeh, Reza and Manafi, Navid and Menezes, Ritesh G. and Miazgowski, Tomasz and Misra, Sanjeev and Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah and Mohammed, Shafiu and Mokdad, Ali H. and Molassiotis, Alex and Monasta, Lorenzo and Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah and Morawska, Lidia and Morgado-da-Costa, Joana and Morrison, Shane Douglas and Naimzada, Mukhammad David and Nazari, Javad and Nguyen, Cuong Tat and Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi and Nikbakhsh, Rajan and Nunez-Samudio, Virginia and Olagunju, Andrew T. and Otstavnov, Nikita and Otstavnov, Stanislav S. and Mahesh, P. A. and Pana, Adrian and Park, Eun-Kee and Pottoo, Faheem Hyder and Pourshams, Akram and Rabiee, Mohammad and Rabiee, Navid and Radfar, Amir and Rafiei, Alireza and Rahman, Muhammad Aziz and Ram, Pradhum and Rathi, Priya and Rawaf, David Laith and Rawaf, Salman and Rezaei, Nima and Roberts, Nicholas L. S. and Roberts, Thomas J. and Ronfani, Luca and Roshandel, Gholamreza and Samy, Abdallah M. and Santric-Milicevic, Milena M. and Sathian, Brijesh and Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola and Sekerija, Mario and Sepanlou, Sadaf G. and Sha, Feng and Shaikh, Masood Ali and Sharma, Rajesh and Sheikh, Aziz and Sheikhbahaei, Sara and Malleshappa, Sudeep K. Siddappa and Singh, Jasvinder A. and Sitas, Freddy and Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth and Steiropoulos, Paschalis and Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael and Tadesse, Eyayou Girma and Takahashi, Ken and Traini, Eugenio and Tran, Bach Xuan and Tran, Khanh Bao and Travillian, Ravensara S. and Vacante, Marco and Villeneuve, Paul J. and Violante, Francesco S. and Yousefi, Zabihollah and Yuce, Deniz and Zadnik, Vesna and Zamanian, Maryam and Zendehdel, Kazem and Zhang, Jianrong and Zhang, Zhi-Jiang and Farzadfar, Farshad and Murray, Christopher J. L. and Naghavi, Mohsen and Collab, GBD 2019 Resp Tract Canc (2021) Global, regional, and national burden of respiratory tract cancers and associated risk factors from 1990 to 2019 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, 9 (9). pp. 1030-1049.

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Background Prevention, control, and treatment of respiratory tract cancers are important steps towards achieving target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)-a one-third reduction in premature mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 2030. We aimed to provide global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer and their attributable risks from 1990 to 2019. Methods Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 methodology, we evaluated the incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of respiratory tract cancers (ie, tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer). Deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer attributable to each risk factor were estimated on the basis of risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level input from 204 countries and territories, stratified by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Trends were estimated from 1990 to 2019, with an emphasis on the 2010-19 period. Findings Globally, there were 2.26 million (95% uncertainty interval 2.07 to 2.45) new cases of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer, and 2.04 million (1.88 to 2.19) deaths and 45.9 million (42.3 to 49.3) DALYs due to tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer in 2019. There were 209 000 (194 000 to 225 000) new cases of larynx cancer, and 123 000 (115 000 to 133 000) deaths and 3.26 million (3.03 to 3.51) DALYs due to larynx cancer globally in 2019. From 2010 to 2019, the number of new tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer cases increased by 23.3% (12.9 to 33.6) globally and the number of larynx cancer cases increased by 24.7% (16.0 to 34.1) globally. Global age-standardised incidence rates of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer decreased by 7.4% (-16.8 to 1.6) and age-standardised incidence rates of larynx cancer decreased by 3.0% (-10.5 to 5.0) in males over the past decade; however, during the same period, age-standardised incidence rates in females increased by 0.9% (-8.2 to 10.2) for tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and decreased by 0.5% (-8.4 to 8.1) for larynx cancer. Furthermore, although age-standardised incidence and death rates declined in both sexes combined from 2010 to 2019 at the global level for tracheal, bronchus, lung and larynx cancers, some locations had rising rates, particularly those on the lower end of the SDI range. Smoking contributed to an estimated 64.2% (61.9-66.4) of all deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and 63.4% (56.3-69.3) of all deaths from larynx cancer in 2019. For males and for both sexes combined, smoking was the leading specific risk factor for age-standardised deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer per 100 000 in all SDI quintiles and GBD regions in 2019. However, among females, household air pollution from solid fuels was the leading specific risk factor in the low SDI quintile and in three GBD regions (central, eastern, and western sub-Saharan Africa) in 2019. Interpretation The numbers of incident cases and deaths from tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer and larynx cancer increased globally during the past decade. Even more concerning, age-standardised incidence and death rates due to tracheal, bronchus, lung cancer and larynx cancer increased in some populations-namely, in the lower SDI quintiles and among females. Preventive measures such as smoking control interventions, air quality management programmes focused on major air pollution sources, and widespread access to clean energy should be prioritised in these settings. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA. 900 Vital Statistics
WF Respiratory System
Divisions: Faculty of Health > Department of Epidemiology
Depositing User: zeynab . bagheri
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2022 11:12
Last Modified: 08 Jan 2022 11:12

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