Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants

Zhou, Bin and Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. and Danaei, Goodarz and Riley, Leanne M. and Paciorek, Christopher J. and Stevens, Gretchen A. and Gregg, Edward W. and Bennett, James E. and Solomon, Bethlehem and Singleton, Rosie K. and Sophiea, Marisa K. and Iurilli, Maria L. C. and Lhoste, Victor P. F. and Cowan, Melanie J. and Savin, Stefan and Woodward, Mark and Balanova, Yulia and Cifkova, Renata and Damasceno, Albertino and Elliott, Paul and Farzadfar, Farshad and He, Jiang and Ikeda, Nayu and Kengne, Andre P. and Khang, Young-Ho and Kim, Hyeon Chang and Laxmaiah, Avula and Lin, Hsien-Ho and Margozzini Maira, Paula and Miranda, J. Jaime and Neuhauser, Hannelore and Sundstrom, Johan and Varghese, Cherian and Widyahening, Indah S. and Zdrojewski, Tomasz and Ezzati, Majid and Abarca-Gomez, Leandra and Abdeen, Ziad A. and Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul and Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. and Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin and Adams, Robert J. and Aekplakorn, Wichai and Afsana, Kaosar and Afzal, Shoaib and Agdeppa, Imelda A. and Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad and Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. and Agyemang, Charles and Ahmad, Noor Ani and Ahmadi, Ali and Ahmadi, Naser and Ahmadi, Nastaran and Ahmadizar, Fariba and Ahmed, Soheir H. and Ahrens, Wolfgang and Ajlouni, Kamel and Al-Raddadi, Rajaa and Alarouj, Monira and AlBuhairan, Fadia and AlDhukair, Shahla and Ali, Mohamed M. and Alkandari, Abdullah and Alkerwi, Ala'a and Allin, Kristine and Aly, Eman and Amarapurkar, Deepak N. and Amougou, Norbert and Amouyel, Philippe and Andersen, Lars Bo and Anderssen, Sigmund A. and Anjana, Ranjit Mohan and Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza and Ansong, Daniel and Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer and Araujo, Joana and Ariansen, Inger and Aris, Tahir and Arku, Raphael E. and Arlappa, Nimmathota and Aryal, Krishna K. and Aspelund, Thor and Assah, Felix K. and Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F. and Auvinen, Juha and Avdicova, Maria and Azevedo, Ana and Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen and Azizi, Fereidoun and Azmin, Mehrdad and Babu, Bontha V. and Bahijri, Suhad and Balakrishna, Nagalla and Balanova, Yulia and Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed and Banach, Maciej and Banadinovic, Maja and Bandosz, Piotr and Banegas, Jose R. and Baran, Joanna and Barbagallo, Carlo M. and Barcelo, Alberto and Barkat, Amina and Barreto, Marta and Barros, Aluisio J. D. and Gomes Barros, Mauro Virgilio and Bartosiewicz, Anna and Basit, Abdul and Bastos, Joao Luiz D. and Bata, Iqbal and Batieha, Anwar M. and Batyrbek, Assembekov and Baur, Louise A. and Beaglehole, Robert and Belavendra, Antonisamy and Ben Romdhane, Habiba and Benet, Mikhail and Bennett, James E. and Benson, Lowell S. and Berkinbayev, Salim and Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio and Bettiol, Heloisa and Bezerra, Jorge and Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor and Bhargava, Santosh K. and Bia, Daniel and Biasch, Katia and Lele, Elysee Claude Bika and Bikbov, Mukharram M. and Bista, Bihungum and Bjerregaard, Peter and Bjertness, Espen and Bjertness, Marius B. and Bjorkelund, Cecilia and Bloch, Katia V. and Blokstra, Anneke and Bo, Simona and Bobak, Martin and Boeing, Heiner and Boggia, Jose G. and Boissonnet, Carlos P. and Bojesen, Stig E. and Bongard, Vanina and Bonilla-Vargas, Alice and Bopp, Matthias and Borghs, Herman and Bovet, Pascal and Boyer, Christopher B. and Braeckman, Lutgart and Brajkovich, Imperia and Branca, Francesco and Breckenkamp, Juergen and Brenner, Hermann and Brewster, Lizzy M. and Briceno, Yajaira and Brito, Miguel and Bruno, Graziella and Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas and Bueno, Gloria and Bugge, Anna and Burns, Con and Bursztyn, Michael and Cabrera de Leon, Antonio and Cacciottolo, Joseph and Cameron, Christine and Can, Gunay and Candido, Ana Paula C. and Capanzana, Mario V. and Capkova, Nadezda and Capuano, Eduardo and Capuano, Vincenzo and Cardoso, Viviane C. and Carlsson, Axel C. and Carvalho, Joana and Casanueva, Felipe F. and Censi, Laura and Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin and Chadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A. and Chamukuttan, Snehalatha and Chan, Angelique W. and Chan, Queenie and Chaturvedi, Himanshu K. and Chaturvedi, Nish and Chee, Miao Li and Chen, Chien-Jen and Chen, Fangfang and Chen, Huashuai and Chen, Shuohua and Chen, Zhengming and Cheng, Ching-Yu and Cheraghian, Bahman and Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui and Chetrit, Angela and Chien, Kuo-Liong and Chiolero, Arnaud and Chiou, Shu-Ti and Chirita-Emandi, Adela and Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores and Cho, Belong and Christensen, Kaare and Christofaro, Diego G. and Chudek, Jerzy and Cifkova, Renata and Cinteza, Eliza and Claessens, Frank and Clarke, Janine and Clays, Els and Cohen, Emmanuel and Concin, Hans and Cooper, Cyrus and Coppinger, Tara C. and Costanzo, Simona and Cottel, Dominique and Cowell, Chris and Craig, Cora L. and Crampin, Amelia C. and Crujeiras, Ana B. and Cruz, Juan J. and Csilla, Semanova and Cui, Liufu and Cureau, Felipe V. and Cuschieri, Sarah and D'Arrigo, Graziella and d'Orsi, Eleonora and Dallongeville, Jean and Damasceno, Albertino and Danaei, Goodarz and Dankner, Rachel and Dantoft, Thomas M. and Dauchet, Luc and Davletov, Kairat and De Backer, Guy and De Bacquer, Dirk and De Curtis, Amalia and de Gaetano, Giovanni and De Henauw, Stefaan and de Oliveira, Paula Duarte and De Ridder, David and De Smedt, Delphine and Deepa, Mohan and Deev, Alexander D. and DeGennaro, Vincent Jr and Delisle, Helene and Demarest, Stefaan and Dennison, Elaine and Deschamps, Valerie and Dhimal, Meghnath and Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F. and Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares and Diaz, Alejandro and Dickerson, Ty T. and Dika, Zivka and Djalalinia, Shirin and Do, Ha T. P. and Dobson, Annette J. and Donfrancesco, Chiara and Donoso, Silvana P. and Doering, Angela and Dorobantu, Maria and Doerr, Marcus and Doua, Kouamelan and Dragano, Nico and Drygas, Wojciech and Duante, Charmaine A. and Duboz, Priscilla and Duda, Rosemary B. and Dulskiene, Virginija and Dushpanova, Anar and Dzakula, Aleksandar and Dzerve, Vilnis and Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta and Eddie, Ricky and Eftekhar, Ebrahim and Eggertsen, Robert and Eghtesad, Sareh and Eiben, Gabriele and Ekelund, Ulf and El-Khateeb, Mohammad and El Ati, Jalila and Eldemire-Shearer, Denise and Eliasen, Marie and Elliott, Paul and Elosua, Roberto and Erasmus, Rajiv T. and Erbel, Raimund and Erem, Cihangir and Eriksen, Louise and Eriksson, Johan G. and Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge and Eslami, Saeid and Esmaeili, Ali and Evans, Alun and Faeh, David and Fakhretdinova, Albina A. and Fall, Caroline H. and Faramarzi, Elnaz and Farjam, Mojtaba and Farzadfar, Farshad and Fattahi, Mohammad Reza and Fawwad, Asher and Felix-Redondo, Francisco J. and Felix, Stephan B. and Ferguson, Trevor S. and Fernandes, Romulo A. and Fernandez-Berges, Daniel and Ferrante, Daniel and Ferrao, Thomas and Ferrari, Marika and Ferrario, Marco M. and Ferreccio, Catterina and Ferreira, Haroldo S. and Ferrer, Eldridge and Ferrieres, Jean and Figueiro, Thamara Hubler and Fink, Gunther and Fischer, Krista and Foo, Leng Huat and Forsner, Maria and Fouad, Heba M. and Francis, Damian K. and Franco, Maria do Carmo and Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth and Frontera, Guillermo and Fuchs, Flavio D. and Fuchs, Sandra C. and Fujita, Yuki and Fumihiko, Matsuda and Furdela, Viktoriya and Furer, Ariel and Furusawa, Takuro and Gaciong, Zbigniew and Galbarczyk, Andrzej and Galenkamp, Henrike and Galvano, Fabio and Gao, Jingli and Gao, Pei and Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli and Garcia, Pablo and Gareta, Dickman and Garnett, Sarah P. and Gaspoz, Jean-Michel and Gasull, Magda and Gazzinelli, Andrea and Gehring, Ulrike and Geleijnse, Johanna M. and George, Ronnie and Ghanbari, Ali and Ghasemi, Erfan and Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina and Ghimire, Anup and Gialluisi, Alessandro and Giampaoli, Simona and Gieger, Christian and Gill, Tiffany K. and Giovannelli, Jonathan and Gironella, Glen and Giwercman, Aleksander and Gkiouras, Konstantinos and Goldberg, Marcel and Goldsmith, Rebecca A. and Gomez, Luis F. and Gomula, Aleksandra and Cordeiro da Silva, Bruna Goncalves and Goncalves, Helen and Goncalves, Mauer and Gonzalez-Chica, David A. and Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela and Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P. and Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio and Gonzalez-Villalpando, Maria-Elena and Gonzalez, Angel R. and Bonet Gorbea, Mariano and Gottrand, Frederic and Graff-Iversen, Sidsel and Grafnetter, Dusan and Grajda, Aneta and Grammatikopoulou, Maria G. and Gregor, Ronald D. and Grodzicki, Tomasz and Grosso, Giuseppe and Gruden, Gabriella and Gu, Dongfeng and Guan, Ong Peng and Gudmundsson, Elias F. and Gudnason, Vilmundur and Guerrero, Ramiro and Guessous, Idris and Guimaraes, Andre L. and Gulliford, Martin C. and Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna and Gunter, Marc J. and Gupta, Prakash C. and Gupta, Rajeev and Gureje, Oye and Gurzkowska, Beata and Gutierrez, Laura and Gutzwiller, Felix and Ha, Seongjun and Hadaegh, Farzad and Haghshenas, Rosa and Hakimi, Hamid and Halkjaer, Jytte and Hambleton, Ian R. and Hamzeh, Behrooz and Hange, Dominique and Hanif, Abu A. M. and Hantunen, Sari and Hao, Jie and Hardman, Carla Meneses and Kumar, Rachakulla Hari and Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad and Hata, Jun and Haugsgjerd, Teresa and Hayes, Alison J. and He, Jiang and He, Yuna and Heier, Margit and Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth and Henrique, Rafael dos Santos and Henriques, Ana and Cadena, Leticia Hernandez and Herrala, Sauli and Heshmat, Ramin and Hill, Allan G. and Ho, Sai Yin and Ho, Suzanne C. and Hobbs, Michael and Holdsworth, Michelle and Homayounfar, Reza and Dinc, Gonul Horasan and Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R. and Hormiga, Claudia M. and Horta, Bernardo L. and Houti, Leila and Howitt, Christina and Htay, Thein Thein and Htet, Aung Soe and Htike, Maung Maung Than and Hu, Yonghua and Huerta, Jose Maria and Huhtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani and Huiart, Laetitia and Huisman, Martijn and Husseini, Abdullatif S. and Huybrechts, Inge and Hwalla, Nahla and Iacoviello, Licia and Iannone, Anna G. and Ibrahim, Mohsen M. and Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim and Ikeda, Nayu and Ikram, M. Arfan and Iotova, Violeta and Irazola, Vilma E. and Ishida, Takafumi and Isiguzo, Godsent C. and Islam, Muhammad and Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful and Iwasaki, Masanori and Jackson, Rod T. and Jacobs, Jeremy M. and Jaddou, Hashem Y. and Jafar, Tazeen and James, Kenneth and Jamrozik, Konrad and Janszky, Imre and Janus, Edward and Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta and Jasienska, Grazyna and Jelakovic, Ana and Jelakovic, Bojan and Jennings, Garry and Jha, Anjani Kumar and Jiang, Chao Qiang and Jimenez, Ramon O. and Joeckel, Karl-Heinz and Joffres, Michel and Johansson, Mattias and Jokelainen, Jari J. and Jonas, Jost B. and Jorgensen, Torben and Joshi, Pradeep and Joukar, Farahnaz and Jozwiak, Jacek and Juolevi, Anne and Jurak, Gregor and Juresa, Vesna and Kaaks, Rudolf and Kafatos, Anthony and Kajantie, Eero O. and Kalmatayeva, Zhanna and Kalpourtzi, Natasa and Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra and Kampmann, Freja B. and Kannan, Srinivasan and Karaglani, Eva and Karhus, Line L. and Karki, Khem B. and Katibeh, Marzieh and Katz, Joanne and Kauhanen, Jussi and Kaur, Prabhdeep and Kavousi, Maryam and Kazakbaeva, Gyulli M. and Keil, Ulrich and Boker, Lital Keinan and Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka and Kelishadi, Roya and Kemper, Han C. G. and Kengne, Andre P. and Keramati, Maryam and Kerimkulova, Alina and Kersting, Mathilde and Key, Timothy and Khader, Yousef Saleh and Khalili, Davood and Khang, Young-Ho and Khaw, Kay-Tee and Kheiri, Bahareh and Kheradmand, Motahareh and Khosravi, Alireza and Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula and Kiechl, Stefan and Killewo, Japhet and Kim, Dong Wook and Kim, Hyeon Chang and Kim, Jeongseon and Klakk, Heidi and Klimek, Magdalena and Klumbiene, Jurate and Knoflach, Michael and Kolle, Elin and Kolsteren, Patrick and Kontto, Jukka P. and Korpelainen, Raija and Korrovits, Paul and Kos, Jelena and Koskinen, Seppo and Kouda, Katsuyasu and Kowlessur, Sudhir and Koziel, Slawomir and Kratenova, Jana and Kriaucioniene, Vilma and Kristensen, Peter Lund and Krokstad, Steiner and Kromhout, Daan and Kruger, Herculina S. and Kubinova, Ruzena and Kuciene, Renata and Kujala, Urho M. and Kulaga, Zbigniew and Kumar, R. Krishna and Kurjata, Pawel and Kusuma, Yadlapalli S. and Kutsenko, Vladimir and Kuulasmaa, Kari and Kyobutungi, Catherine and Laatikainen, Tiina and Lachat, Carl and Laid, Youcef and Lam, Tai Hing and Landrove, Orlando and Lanska, Vera and Lappas, Georg and Larijani, Bagher and Latt, Tint Swe and Laxmaiah, Avula and Le Coroller, Gwenaelle and Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen and Le, Tuyen D. and Lee, Jeannette and Lee, Jeonghee and Lehmann, Nils and Lehtimaki, Terho and Lemogoum, Daniel and Levitt, Naomi S. and Li, Yanping and Lilly, Christa L. and Lim, Wei-Yen and Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda and Lin, Hsien-Ho and Lin, Xu and Lin, Yi-Ting and Lind, Lars and Lingam, Vijaya and Linneberg, Allan and Lissner, Lauren and Litwin, Mieczyslaw and Lo, Wei-Cheng and Loit, Helle-Mai and Lopez-Garcia, Esther and Lopez, Tania and Lotufo, Paulo A. and Lozano, Jose Eugenio and Lovrencic, Iva Lukacevic and Lukrafka, Janice L. and Luksiene, Dalia and Lundqvist, Annamari and Lundqvist, Robert and Lunet, Nuno and Lustigova, Michala and Luszczki, Edyta and Ma, Guansheng and Ma, Jun and Machado-Coelho, George L. L. and Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M. and Macia, Enguerran and Macieira, Luisa M. and Madar, Ahmed A. and Maggi, Stefania and Magliano, Dianna J. and Magriplis, Emmanuella and Mahasampath, Gowri and Maire, Bernard and Majer, Marjeta and Makdisse, Marcia and Malekzadeh, Fatemeh and Malekzadeh, Reza and Malhotra, Rahul and Mallikharjuna, Kodavanti and Malyutina, Sofia K. and Maniego, Lynell V. and Manios, Yannis and Mann, Jim I. and Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz and Manzato, Enzo and Marcil, Anie and Margozzini, Paula and Marild, Staffan B. and Glavic, Mihalea Marinovic and Marques-Vidal, Pedro and Marques, Larissa Pruner and Marrugat, Jaume and Martorell, Reynaldo and Mascarenhas, Luis P. and Matasin, Marija and Mathiesen, Ellisiv B. and Mathur, Prashant and Matijasevich, Alicia and Matlosz, Piotr and Matsha, Tandi E. and Mavrogianni, Christina and Mbanya, Jean Claude N. and Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J. and McFarlane, Shelly R. and McGarvey, Stephen T. and McLachlan, Stela and McLean, Rachael M. and McLean, Scott B. and McNulty, Breige A. and Benchekor, Sounnia Mediene and Medzioniene, Jurate and Mehdipour, Parinaz and Mehlig, Kirsten and Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang and Meirhaeghe, Aline and Meisinger, Christa and Mendoza Montano, Carlos and Menezes, Ana Maria B. and Menon, Geetha R. and Mereke, Alibek and Meshram, Indrapal I. and Metspalu, Andres and Meyer, Haakon E. and Mi, Jie and Michels, Nathalie and Mikkel, Kairit and Milkowska, Karolina and Miller, Jody C. and Minderico, Claudia S. and Mini, G. K. and Miranda, J. Jaime and Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza and Mirrakhimov, Erkin and Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta and Modesti, Pietro A. and Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi and Mohajer, Bahram and Mohamed, Mostafa K. and Mohamed, Shukri F. and Mohammad, Kazem and Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza and Mohammadi, Zahra and Mohammadifard, Noushin and Mohammadpourhodki, Reza and Mohan, Viswanathan and Mohanna, Salim and Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd and Mohebbi, Iraj and Mohebi, Farnam and Moitry, Marie and Mollehave, Line T. and Molnar, Denes and Momenan, Amirabbas and Mondo, Charles K. and Monterrubio-Flores, Eric and Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K. and Moon, Jin Soo and Moosazadeh, Mahmood and Moreira, Leila B. and Morejon, Alain and Moreno, Luis A. and Morgan, Karen and Moschonis, George and Mossakowska, Malgorzata and Mostafa, Aya and Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali and Mota, Jorge and Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel and Motta, Jorge and Andre Moura-dos-Santos, Marcos and Mridha, Malay K. and Msyamboza, Kelias P. and Mu, Thet Thet and Muhihi, Alfa J. and Muiesan, Maria L. and Muller-Nurasyid, Martina and Murphy, Neil and Mursu, Jaakko and Musa, Kamarul Imran and Milanovic, Sanja Music and Musil, Vera and Mustafa, Norlaila and Nabipour, Iraj and Naderimagham, Shohreh and Nagel, Gabriele and Naidu, Balkish M. and Najafi, Farid and Nakamura, Harunobu and Namesna, Jana and Nang, Ei Ei K. and Nangia, Vinay B. and Narake, Sameer and Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba and Neal, William A. and Nejatizadeh, Azim and Nenko, Ilona and Neovius, Martin and Neuhauser, Hannelore K. and Nguyen, Chung T. and Nguyen, Nguyen D. and Nguyen, Quang V. and Nguyen, Quang Ngoc and Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E. and Niiranen, Teemu J. and Nikitin, Yury P. and Ninomiya, Toshiharu and Nishtar, Sania and Njelekela, Marina A. and Noale, Marianna and Noboa, Oscar A. and Noorbala, Ahmad Ali and Norat, Teresa and Nordendahl, Maria and Nordestgaard, Borge G. and Noto, Davide and Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia and Al Nsour, Mohannad and Nunes, Baltazar and O'Neill, Terence W. and O'Reilly, Dermot and Ochimana, Caleb and Oda, Eiji and Odili, Augustine N. and Oh, Kyungwon and Ohara, Kumiko and Ohtsuka, Ryutaro and Olie, Valerie and Olinto, Maria Teresa A. and Oliveira, Isabel O. and Omar, Mohd Azahadi and Onat, Altan and Ong, Sok King and Ono, Lariane M. and Ordunez, Pedro and Ornelas, Rui and Ortiz, Pedro J. and Osmond, Clive and Ostojic, Sergej M. and Ostovar, Afshin and Otero, Johanna A. and Overvad, Kim and Owusu-Dabo, Ellis and Paccaud, Fred Michel and Padez, Cristina and Pahomova, Elena and de Paiva, Karina Mary and Pajak, Andrzej and Palli, Domenico and Palmieri, Luigi and Pan, Wen-Harn and Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra and Panza, Francesco and Paoli, Mariela and Papandreou, Dimitrios and Park, Soon-Woo and Park, Suyeon and Parnell, Winsome R. and Parsaeian, Mahboubeh and Pasquet, Patrick and Patel, Nikhil D. and Pavlyshyn, Halyna and Pecin, Ivan and Pednekar, Mangesh S. and Pedro, Joao M. and Peer, Nasheeta and Peixoto, Sergio Viana and Peltonen, Markku and Pereira, Alexandre C. and Peres, Karen G. 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A. and Peres, Marco A. and Peters, Annette and Petkeviciene, Janina and Peykari, Niloofar and Pham, Son Thai and Pichardo, Rafael N. and Pigeot, Iris and Pikhart, Hynek and Pilav, Aida and Pilotto, Lorenza and Pitakaka, Freda and Piwonska, Aleksandra and Pizarro, Andreia N. and Plans-Rubio, Pedro and Polasek, Ozren and Porta, Miquel and Poudyal, Anil and Pourfarzi, Farhad and Pourshams, Akram and Poustchi, Hossein and Pradeepa, Rajendra and Price, Alison J. and Price, Jacqueline F. and Providencia, Rui and Puhakka, Soile E. and Puiu, Maria and Punab, Margus and Qasrawi, Radwan F. and Qorbani, Mostafa and Queiroz, Daniel and Bao, Tran Quoc and Radic, Ivana and Radisauskas, Ricardas and Rahimikazerooni, Salar and Rahman, Mahfuzar and Raitakari, Olli and Raj, Manu and Rakhimova, Ellina M. and Rao, Sudha Ramachandra and Ramachandran, Ambady and Ramos, Elisabete and Rampal, Lekhraj and Rampal, Sanjay and Rangel Reina, Daniel A. and Rarra, Vayia and Rech, Cassiano Ricardo and Redon, Josep and Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M. and Regecova, Valeria and Revilla, Luis and Rezaianzadeh, Abbas and Ribeiro, Robespierre and Riboli, Elio and Richter, Adrian and Rigo, Fernando and de Wit, Tobias F. 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A. and Sorgjerd, Elin P. and Soric, Maroje and Jerome, Charles Sossa and Soumare, Aicha and Sparboe-Nilsen, Bente and Sparrenberger, Karen and Staessen, Jan A. and Starc, Gregor and Stavreski, Bill and Steene-Johannessen, Jostein and Stehle, Peter and Stein, Aryeh D. and Stergiou, George S. and Stessman, Jochanan and Stieber, Jutta and Stoeckl, Doris and Stocks, Tanja and Stokwiszewski, Jakub and Stronks, Karien and Strufaldi, Maria Wany and Suka, Machi and Sun, Chien-An and Sundstrom, Johan and Sung, Yn-Tz and Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul and Sy, Rody G. and Syddall, Holly E. and Sylva, Rene Charles and Szklo, Moyses and Tai, E. Shyong and Tammesoo, Mari-Liis and Tamosiunas, Abdonas and Tan, Eng Joo and Tang, Xun and Tanser, Frank and Tao, Yong and Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul and Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B. and Taylor, Anne and Taylor, Julie and Tebar, William R. and Tell, Grethe S. and Tello, Tania and Tham, Yih Chung and Thankappan, K. 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LANCET, 398 (10304). pp. 957-980.

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Background Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories. Methods We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30-79 years from population-representative studies with measurement of blood pressure and data on blood pressure treatment. We defined hypertension as having systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, or taking medication for hypertension. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the proportion of people with hypertension who had a previous diagnosis (detection), who were taking medication for hypertension (treatment), and whose hypertension was controlled to below 140/90 mm Hg (control). The model allowed for trends over time to be non-linear and to vary by age. Findings The number of people aged 30-79 years with hypertension doubled from 1990 to 2019, from 331 (95% credible interval 306-359) million women and 317 (292-344) million men in 1990 to 626 (584-668) million women and 652 (604-698) million men in 2019, despite stable global age-standardised prevalence. In 2019, age-standardised hypertension prevalence was lowest in Canada and Peru for both men and women; in Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and some countries in western Europe including Switzerland, Spain, and the UK for women; and in several low-income and middle-income countries such as Eritrea, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Solomon Islands for men. Hypertension prevalence surpassed 50% for women in two countries and men in nine countries, in central and eastern Europe, central Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. Globally, 59% (55-62) of women and 49% (46-52) of men with hypertension reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension in 2019, and 47% (43-51) of women and 38% (35-41) of men were treated. Control rates among people with hypertension in 2019 were 23% (20-27) for women and 18% (16-21) for men. In 2019, treatment and control rates were highest in South Korea, Canada, and Iceland (treatment >70%; control >50%), followed by the USA, Costa Rica, Germany, Portugal, and Taiwan. Treatment rates were less than 25% for women and less than 20% for men in Nepal, Indonesia, and some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Control rates were below 10% for women and men in these countries and for men in some countries in north Africa, central and south Asia, and eastern Europe. Treatment and control rates have improved in most countries since 1990, but we found little change in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Improvements were largest in high-income countries, central Europe, and some upper-middle-income and recently high-income countries including Costa Rica, Taiwan, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Brazil, Chile, Turkey, and Iran. Interpretation Improvements in the detection, treatment, and control of hypertension have varied substantially across countries, with some middle-income countries now outperforming most high-income nations. The dual approach of reducing hypertension prevalence through primary prevention and enhancing its treatment and control is achievable not only in high-income countries but also in low-income and middle-income settings. Copyright (C) 2021 World Health Organization; licensee Elsevier.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA. 900 Vital Statistics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Department of Clinical Sciences > Department of Urology
Depositing User: zeynab . bagheri
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2022 08:24
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2022 08:24

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