Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Vos, Theo and Lim, Stephen S and Abbafati, Cristiana and Abbas, Kaja M and Abbasi, Mohammad and Abbasifard, Mitra and Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen and Abbastabar, Hedayat and Abd-Allah, Foad and Abdelalim, Ahmed and Abdollahi, Mohammad and Abdollahpour, Ibrahim and Abolhassani, Hassan and Aboyans, Victor and Abrams, Elissa M and Abreu, Lucas Guimarães and Abrigo, Michael R M and Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal and Abushouk, Abdelrahman I and Acebedo, Alyssa and Ackerman, Ilana N and Adabi, Maryam and Adamu, Abdu A and Adebayo, Oladimeji M and Adekanmbi, Victor and Adelson, Jaimie D and Adetokunboh, Olatunji O and Adham, Davoud and Afshari, Mahdi and Afshin, Ashkan and Agardh, Emilie E and Agarwal, Gina and Agesa, Kareha M and Aghaali, Mohammad and Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem and Agrawal, Anurag and Ahmad, Tauseef and Ahmadi, Alireza and Ahmadi, Mehdi and Ahmadieh, Hamid and Ahmadpour, Ehsan and Akalu, Temesgen Yihunie and Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola and Akinyemiju, Tomi and Akombi, Blessing and Al-Aly, Ziyad and Alam, Khurshid and Alam, Noore and Alam, Samiah and Alam, Tahiya and Alanzi, Turki M and Albertson, Samuel B and Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth and Alema, Niguse Meles and Ali, Muhammad and Ali, Saqib and Alicandro, Gianfranco and Alijanzadeh, Mehran and Alinia, Cyrus and Alipour, Vahid and Aljunid, Syed Mohamed and Alla, François and Allebeck, Peter and Almasi-Hashiani, Amir and Alonso, Jordi and Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M and Altirkawi, Khalid A and Alvis-Guzman, Nelson and Alvis-Zakzuk, Nelson J and Amini, Saeed and Amini-Rarani, Mostafa and Aminorroaya, Arya and Amiri, Fatemeh and Amit, Arianna Maever L and Amugsi, Dickson A and Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera and Anderlini, Deanna and Andrei, Catalina Liliana and Andrei, Tudorel and Anjomshoa, Mina and Ansari, Fereshteh and Ansari, Iman and Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza and Antonio, Carl Abelardo T and Antony, Catherine M and Antriyandarti, Ernoiz and Anvari, Davood and Anwer, Razique and Arabloo, Jalal and Arab-Zozani, Morteza and Aravkin, Aleksandr Y and Ariani, Filippo and Ärnlöv, Johan and Aryal, Krishna K and Arzani, Afsaneh and Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran and Asadi-Pooya, Ali A and Asghari, Babak and Ashbaugh, Charlie and Atnafu, Desta Debalkie and Atre, Sachin R and Ausloos, Floriane and Ausloos, Marcel and Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina and Ayano, Getinet and Ayanore, Martin Amogre and Aynalem, Yared Asmare and Azari, Samad and Azarian, Ghasem and Azene, Zelalem Nigussie and Babaee, Ebrahim and Badawi, Alaa and Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba and Bakhshaei, Mohammad Hossein and Bakhtiari, Ahad and Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar and Balalla, Shivanthi and Balassyano, Shelly and Banach, Maciej and Banik, Palash Chandra and Bannick, Marlena S and Bante, Agegnehu Bante and Baraki, Adhanom Gebreegziabher and Barboza, Miguel A and Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn and Barthelemy, Celine M and Barua, Lingkan and Barzegar, Akbar and Basu, Sanjay and Baune, Bernhard T and Bayati, Mohsen and Bazmandegan, Gholamreza and Bedi, Neeraj and Beghi, Ettore and Béjot, Yannick and Bello, Aminu K and Bender, Rose G and Bennett, Derrick A and Bennitt, Fiona B and Bensenor, Isabela M and Benziger, Catherine P and Berhe, Kidanemaryam and Bernabe, Eduardo and Bertolacci, Gregory J and Bhageerathy, Reshmi and Bhala, Neeraj and Bhandari, Dinesh and Bhardwaj, Pankaj and Bhattacharyya, Krittika and Bhutta, Zulfiqar A and Bibi, Sadia and Biehl, Molly H and Bikbov, Boris and Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat and Biondi, Antonio and Birihane, Binyam Minuye and Bisanzio, Donal and Bisignano, Catherine and Biswas, Raaj Kishore and Bohlouli, Somayeh and Bohluli, Mehdi and Bolla, Srinivasa Rao Rao and Boloor, Archith and Boon-Dooley, Alexandra S and Borges, Guilherme and Borzì, Antonio Maria and Bourne, Rupert and Brady, Oliver J and Brauer, Michael and Brayne, Carol and Breitborde, Nicholas J K and Brenner, Hermann and Briant, Paul Svitil and Briggs, Andrew M and Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich and Britton, Gabrielle B and Bryazka, Dana and Buchbinder, Rachelle and Bumgarner, Blair R and Busse, Reinhard and Butt, Zahid A and Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano and Cámera, Luis LA Alberto and Campos-Nonato, Ismael R and Car, Josip and Cárdenas, Rosario and Carreras, Giulia and Carrero, Juan J and Carvalho, Felix and Castaldelli-Maia, Joao Mauricio and Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A and Castelpietra, Giulio and Castle, Chris D and Castro, Franz and Catalá-López, Ferrán and Causey, Kate and Cederroth, Christopher R and Cercy, Kelly M and Cerin, Ester and Chandan, Joht Singh and Chang, Alex R and Charlson, Fiona J and Chattu, Vijay Kumar and Chaturvedi, Sarika and Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel and Chin, Ken Lee and Cho, Daniel Youngwhan and Christensen, Hanne and Chu, Dinh-Toi and Chung, Michael T and Cicuttini, Flavia M and Ciobanu, Liliana G and Cirillo, Massimo and Collins, Emma L and Compton, Kelly and Conti, Sara and Cortesi, Paolo Angelo and Costa, Vera Marisa and Cousin, Ewerton and Cowden, Richard G and Cowie, Benjamin C and Cromwell, Elizabeth A and Cross, Di H and Crowe, Christopher Stephen and Cruz, Jessica A and Cunningham, Matthew and Dahlawi, Saad M A and Damiani, Giovanni and Dandona, Lalit and Dandona, Rakhi and Darwesh, Aso Mohammad and Daryani, Ahmad and Das, Jai K and Das Gupta, Rajat and das Neves, José and Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto and Davletov, Kairat and De Leo, Diego and Dean, Frances E and DeCleene, Nicole K and Deen, Amanda and Degenhardt, Louisa and Dellavalle, Robert Paul and Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen and Demsie, Desalegn Getnet and Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar and Dereje, Nebiyu Dereje and Dervenis, Nikolaos and Desai, Rupak and Desalew, Assefa and Dessie, Getenet Ayalew and Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda and Dhungana, Govinda Prasad and Dianatinasab, Mostafa and Diaz, Daniel and Dibaji Forooshani, Zahra Sadat and Dingels, Zachary V and Dirac, M Ashworth and Djalalinia, Shirin and Do, Hoa Thi and Dokova, Klara and Dorostkar, Fariba and Doshi, Chirag P and Doshmangir, Leila and Douiri, Abdel and Doxey, Matthew C and Driscoll, Tim Robert and Dunachie, Susanna J and Duncan, Bruce B and Duraes, Andre Rodrigues and Eagan, Arielle Wilder and Ebrahimi Kalan, Mohammad and Edvardsson, David and Ehrlich, Joshua R and El Nahas, Nevine and El Sayed, Iman and El Tantawi, Maha and Elbarazi, Iffat and Elgendy, Islam Y and Elhabashy, Hala Rashad and El-Jaafary, Shaimaa I and Elyazar, Iqbal RF and Emamian, Mohammad Hassan and Emmons-Bell, Sophia and Erskine, Holly E and Eshrati, Babak and Eskandarieh, Sharareh and Esmaeilnejad, Saman and Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz and Esteghamati, Alireza and Estep, Kara and Etemadi, Arash and Etisso, Atkilt Esaiyas and Farahmand, Mohammad and Faraj, Anwar and Fareed, Mohammad and Faridnia, Roghiyeh and Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sá and Farioli, Andrea and Faro, Andre and Faruque, Mithila and Farzadfar, Farshad and Fattahi, Nazir and Fazlzadeh, Mehdi and Feigin, Valery L and Feldman, Rachel and Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad and Fernandes, Eduarda and Ferrari, Alize J and Ferreira, Manuela L and Filip, Irina and Fischer, Florian and Fisher, James L and Fitzgerald, Ryan and Flohr, Carsten and Flor, Luisa Sorio and Foigt, Nataliya A and Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin and Force, Lisa M and Fornari, Carla and Foroutan, Masoud and Fox, Jack T and Freitas, Marisa and Fu, Weijia and Fukumoto, Takeshi and Furtado, João M and Gad, Mohamed M and Gakidou, Emmanuela and Galles, Natalie C and Gallus, Silvano and Gamkrelidze, Amiran and Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L and Gardner, William M and Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle and Gebrehiwot, Abiyu Mekonnen and Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork and Gebreslassie, Assefa Ayalew Ayalew Ayalew and Gershberg Hayoon, Anna and Gething, Peter W and Ghadimi, Maryam and Ghadiri, Keyghobad and Ghafourifard, Mansour and Ghajar, Alireza and Ghamari, Farhad and Ghashghaee, Ahmad and Ghiasvand, Hesam and Ghith, Nermin and Gholamian, Asadollah and Gilani, Syed Amir and Gill, Paramjit Singh and Gitimoghaddam, Mojgan and Giussani, Giorgia and Goli, Srinivas and Gomez, Ricardo Santiago and Gopalani, Sameer Vali and Gorini, Giuseppe and Gorman, Taren M and Gottlich, Harrison Chase and Goudarzi, Houman and Goulart, Alessandra C and Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia and Grada, Ayman and Grivna, Michal and Grosso, Giuseppe and Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen and Gugnani, Harish Chander and Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena and Guimarães, Rafael Alves and Guled, Rashid Abdi and Guo, Gaorui and Guo, Yuming and Gupta, Rajeev and Haagsma, Juanita A and Haddock, Beatrix and Hafezi-Nejad, Nima and Hafiz, Abdul and Hagins, Hailey and Haile, Lydia M and Hall, Brian J and Halvaei, Iman and Hamadeh, Randah R and Hamagharib Abdullah, Kanaan and Hamilton, Erin B and Han, Chieh and Han, Hannah and Hankey, Graeme J and Haro, Josep Maria and Harvey, James D and Hasaballah, Ahmed I and Hasanzadeh, Amir and Hashemian, Maryam and Hassanipour, Soheil and Hassankhani, Hadi and Havmoeller, Rasmus J and Hay, Roderick J and Hay, Simon I and Hayat, Khezar and Heidari, Behnam and Heidari, Golnaz and Heidari-Soureshjani, Reza and Hendrie, Delia and Henrikson, Hannah J and Henry, Nathaniel J and Herteliu, Claudiu and Heydarpour, Fatemeh and Hird, Thomas R and Hoek, Hans W and Hole, Michael K and Holla, Ramesh and Hoogar, Praveen and Hosgood, H Dean and Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi and Hostiuc, Mihaela and Hostiuc, Sorin and Househ, Mowafa and Hoy, Damian G and Hsairi, Mohamed and Hsieh, Vivian Chia-rong and Hu, Guoqing and Huda, Tanvir M and Hugo, Fernando N and Huynh, Chantal K and Hwang, Bing-Fang and Iannucci, Vincent C and Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel and Ikuta, Kevin S and Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen and Ilic, Irena M and Ilic, Milena D and Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja and Ippolito, Helen and Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi and Islam, M Mofizul and Islam, MdMohaimenul and Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful and Islami, Farhad and Iso, Hiroyasu and Ivers, Rebecca Q and Iwu, Chidozie C D and Iyamu, Ihoghosa Osamuyi and Jaafari, Jalil and Jacobsen, Kathryn H and Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad and Jafari, Hussain and Jafarinia, Morteza and Jahagirdar, Deepa and Jahani, Mohammad Ali and Jahanmehr, Nader and Jakovljevic, Mihajlo and Jalali, Amir and Jalilian, Farzad and James, Spencer L and Janjani, Hosna and Janodia, Manthan Dilipkumar and Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra and Jeemon, Panniyammakal and Jenabi, Ensiyeh and Jha, Ravi Prakash and Jha, Vivekanand and Ji, John S and Jia, Peng and John, Oommen and John-Akinola, Yetunde O and Johnson, Catherine Owens and Johnson, Sarah Charlotte and Jonas, Jost B and Joo, Tamas and Joshi, Ankur and Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy and Jürisson, Mikk and Kabir, Ali and Kabir, Zubair and Kalani, Hamed and Kalani, Rizwan and Kalankesh, Leila R and Kalhor, Rohollah and Kamiab, Zahra and Kanchan, Tanuj and Karami Matin, Behzad and Karch, André and Karim, Mohd Anisul and Karimi, Salah Eddin and Kassa, Getachew Mullu and Kassebaum, Nicholas J and Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal and Kawakami, Norito and Kayode, Gbenga A and Keddie, Suzanne H and Keller, Cathleen and Kereselidze, Maia and Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif and Khalid, Nauman and Khan, Maseer and Khatab, Khaled and Khater, Mona M and Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli and Khayamzadeh, Maryam and Khodayari, Mohammad Taghi and Khundkar, Roba and Kianipour, Neda and Kieling, Christian and Kim, Daniel and Kim, Young-Eun and Kim, Yun Jin and Kimokoti, Ruth W and Kisa, Adnan and Kisa, Sezer and Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna and Kivimäki, Mika and Kneib, Cameron J and Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo and Kocarnik, Jonathan M and Kolola, Tufa and Kopec, Jacek A and Kosen, Soewarta and Koul, Parvaiz A and Koyanagi, Ai and Kravchenko, Michael A and Krishan, Kewal and Krohn, Kris J and Kuate Defo, Barthelemy and Kucuk Bicer, Burcu and Kumar, G Anil and Kumar, Manasi and Kumar, Pushpendra and Kumar, Vivek and Kumaresh, Girikumar and Kurmi, Om P and Kusuma, Dian and Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe and La Vecchia, Carlo and Lacey, Ben and Lal, Dharmesh Kumar and Lalloo, Ratilal and Lam, Jennifer O and Lami, Faris Hasan and Landires, Iván and Lang, Justin J and Lansingh, Van Charles and Larson, Samantha Leigh and Larsson, Anders O and Lasrado, Savita and Lassi, Zohra S and Lau, Kathryn Mei-Ming and Lavados, Pablo M and Lazarus, Jeffrey V and Ledesma, Jorge R and Lee, Paul H and Lee, Shaun Wen Huey and LeGrand, Kate E and Leigh, James and Leonardi, Matilde and Lescinsky, Haley and Leung, Janni and Levi, Miriam and Lewington, Sarah and Li, Shanshan and Lim, Lee-Ling and Lin, Christine and Lin, Ro-Ting and Linehan, Christine and Linn, Shai and Liu, Hung-Chun and Liu, Shiwei and Liu, Zichen and Looker, Katharine J and Lopez, Alan D and Lopukhov, Platon D and Lorkowski, Stefan and Lotufo, Paulo A and Lucas, Tim C D and Lugo, Alessandra and Lunevicius, Raimundas and Lyons, Ronan A and Ma, Jianing and MacLachlan, Jennifer H and Maddison, Emilie R and Maddison, Ralph and Madotto, Fabiana and Mahasha, Phetole Walter and Mai, Hue Thi and Majeed, Azeem and Maled, Venkatesh and Maleki, Shokofeh and Malekzadeh, Reza and Malta, Deborah Carvalho and Mamun, Abdullah A and Manafi, Amir and Manafi, Navid and Manguerra, Helena and Mansouri, Borhan and Mansournia, Mohammad Ali and Mantilla Herrera, Ana M and Maravilla, Joemer C and Marks, Ashley and Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio and Martopullo, Ira and Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra and Massano, João and Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard and Mathur, Manu Raj and Maulik, Pallab K and McAlinden, Colm and McGrath, John J and McKee, Martin and Mehndiratta, Man Mohan and Mehri, Fereshteh and Mehta, Kala M and Meitei, Wahengbam Bigyananda and Memiah, Peter T N and Mendoza, Walter and Menezes, Ritesh G and Mengesha, Endalkachew Worku and Mengesha, Meresa Berwo and Mereke, Alibek and Meretoja, Atte and Meretoja, Tuomo J and Mestrovic, Tomislav and Miazgowski, Bartosz and Miazgowski, Tomasz and Michalek, Irmina Maria and Mihretie, Kebadnew Mulatu and Miller, Ted R and Mills, Edward J and Mirica, Andreea and Mirrakhimov, Erkin M and Mirzaei, Hamed and Mirzaei, Maryam and Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi and Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen and Mithra, Prasanna and Moazen, Babak and Moghadaszadeh, Masoud and Mohamadi, Efat and Mohammad, Dara K and Mohammad, Yousef and Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Naser and Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah and Mohammadifard, Noushin and Mohammadpourhodki, Reza and Mohammed, Shafiu and Mokdad, Ali H and Molokhia, Mariam and Momen, Natalie C and Monasta, Lorenzo and Mondello, Stefania and Mooney, Meghan D and Moosazadeh, Mahmood and Moradi, Ghobad and Moradi, Masoud and Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar and Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah and Moraga, Paula and Morales, Linda and Morawska, Lidia and Moreno Velásquez, Ilais and Morgado-da-Costa, Joana and Morrison, Shane Douglas and Mosser, Jonathan F and Mouodi, Simin and Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam and Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin and Mueller, Ulrich Otto and Munro, Sandra B and Muriithi, Moses K and Musa, Kamarul Imran and Muthupandian, Saravanan and Naderi, Mehdi and Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman and Nagel, Gabriele and Naghshtabrizi, Behshad and Nair, Sanjeev and Nandi, Anita K and Nangia, Vinay and Nansseu, Jobert Richie and Nayak, Vinod C and Nazari, Javad and Negoi, Ionut and Negoi, Ruxandra Irina and Netsere, Henok Biresaw Netsere and Ngunjiri, Josephine W and Nguyen, Cuong Tat and Nguyen, Jason and Nguyen, Michele and Nguyen, Minh and Nichols, Emma and Nigatu, Dabere and Nigatu, Yeshambel T and Nikbakhsh, Rajan and Nixon, Molly R and Nnaji, Chukwudi A and Nomura, Shuhei and Norrving, Bo and Noubiap, Jean Jacques and Nowak, Christoph and Nunez-Samudio, Virginia and Oţoiu, Adrian and Oancea, Bogdan and Odell, Christopher M and Ogbo, Felix Akpojene and Oh, In-Hwan and Okunga, Emmanuel Wandera and Oladnabi, Morteza and Olagunju, Andrew T and Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola and Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun and Oluwasanu, Mojisola Morenike and Omar Bali, Ahmed and Omer, Muktar Omer and Ong, Kanyin L and Onwujekwe, Obinna E and Orji, Aislyn U and Orpana, Heather M and Ortiz, Alberto and Ostroff, Samuel M and Otstavnov, Nikita and Otstavnov, Stanislav S and Øverland, Simon and Owolabi, Mayowa O and P A, Mahesh and Padubidri, Jagadish Rao and Pakhare, Abhijit P and Palladino, Raffaele and Pana, Adrian and Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra and Pandey, Anamika and Park, Eun-Kee and Parmar, Priya G Kumari and Pasupula, Deepak Kumar and Patel, Sangram Kishor and Paternina-Caicedo, Angel J and Pathak, Ashish and Pathak, Mona and Patten, Scott B and Patton, George C and Paudel, Deepak and Pazoki Toroudi, Hamidreza and Peden, Amy E and Pennini, Alyssa and Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino and Peprah, Emmanuel K and Pereira, Alexandre and Pereira, David M and Perico, Norberto and Pham, Hai Quang and Phillips, Michael R and Pigott, David M and Pilgrim, Thomas and Pilz, Tessa M and Pirsaheb, Meghdad and Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer and Plass, Dietrich and Pokhrel, Khem Narayan and Polibin, Roman V and Polinder, Suzanne and Polkinghorne, Kevan R and Postma, Maarten J and Pourjafar, Hadi and Pourmalek, Farshad and Pourmirza Kalhori, Reza and Pourshams, Akram and Poznańska, Anna and Prada, Sergio I and Prakash, V and Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga and Pupillo, Elisabetta and Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin and Rabiee, Mohammad and Rabiee, Navid and Radfar, Amir and Rafiee, Ata and Rafiei, Alireza and Raggi, Alberto and Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin and Rahman, Muhammad Aziz and Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali and Rajati, Fatemeh and Ramezanzadeh, Kiana and Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal and Rao, Puja C and Rao, Sowmya J and Rasella, Davide and Rastogi, Prateek and Rathi, Priya and Rawaf, David Laith and Rawaf, Salman and Rawal, Lal and Razo, Christian and Redford, Sofia Boston and Reiner, Robert C and Reinig, Nickolas and Reitsma, Marissa Bettay and Remuzzi, Giuseppe and Renjith, Vishnu and Renzaho, Andre M N and Resnikoff, Serge and Rezaei, Nima and Rezai, Mohammad sadegh and Rezapour, Aziz and Rhinehart, Phoebe-Anne and Riahi, Seyed Mohammad and Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P and Ribeiro, Daniel Cury and Ribeiro, Daniela and Rickard, Jennifer and Roberts, Nicholas L S and Roberts, Shaun and Robinson, Stephen R and Roever, Leonardo and Rolfe, Sam and Ronfani, Luca and Roshandel, Gholamreza and Roth, Gregory A and Rubagotti, Enrico and Rumisha, Susan Fred and Sabour, Siamak and Sachdev, Perminder S and Saddik, Basema and Sadeghi, Ehsan and Sadeghi, Masoumeh and Saeidi, Shahram and Safi, Sare and Safiri, Saeid and Sagar, Rajesh and Sahebkar, Amirhossein and Sahraian, Mohammad Ali and Sajadi, S Mohammad and Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza and Salamati, Payman and Salehi Zahabi, Saleh and Salem, Hosni and Salem, Marwa R Rashad and Salimzadeh, Hamideh and Salomon, Joshua A and Salz, Inbal and Samad, Zainab and Samy, Abdallah M and Sanabria, Juan and Santomauro, Damian Francesco and Santos, Itamar S and Santos, João Vasco and Santric-Milicevic, Milena M and Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer and Sarmiento-Suárez, Rodrigo and Sarrafzadegan, Nizal and Sartorius, Benn and Sarveazad, Arash and Sathian, Brijesh and Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu and Sattin, Davide and Sbarra, Alyssa N and Schaeffer, Lauren E and Schiavolin, Silvia and Schmidt, Maria Inês and Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth and Schwebel, David C and Schwendicke, Falk and Senbeta, Anbissa Muleta and Senthilkumaran, Subramanian and Sepanlou, Sadaf G and Shackelford, Katya Anne and Shadid, Jamileh and Shahabi, Saeed and Shaheen, Amira A and Shaikh, Masood Ali and Shalash, Ali S and Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran and Shamsizadeh, Morteza and Shannawaz, Mohammed and Sharafi, Kiomars and Sharara, Fablina and Sheena, Brittney S and Sheikhtaheri, Abbas and Shetty, Ranjitha S and Shibuya, Kenji and Shiferaw, Wondimeneh Shibabaw and Shigematsu, Mika and Shin, Jae Il and Shiri, Rahman and Shirkoohi, Reza and Shrime, Mark G and Shuval, Kerem and Siabani, Soraya and Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora and Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig and Silva, João Pedro and Simpson, Kyle E and Singh, Ambrish and Singh, Jasvinder A and Skiadaresi, Eirini and Skou, Søren T Skou and Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich and Sobngwi, Eugene and Sokhan, Anton and Soltani, Shahin and Sorensen, Reed J D and Soriano, Joan B and Sorrie, Muluken Bekele and Soyiri, Ireneous N and Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T and Stanaway, Jeffrey D and Stark, Benjamin A and Ştefan, Simona Cătălina and Stein, Caroline and Steiner, Caitlyn and Steiner, Timothy J and Stokes, Mark A and Stovner, Lars Jacob and Stubbs, Jacob L and Sudaryanto, Agus and Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale and Sulo, Gerhard and Sultan, Iyad and Sykes, Bryan L and Sylte, Dillon O and Szócska, Miklós and Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael and Tabb, Karen M and Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar and Taherkhani, Amir and Tajdini, Masih and Takahashi, Ken and Taveira, Nuno and Teagle, Whitney L and Teame, Hirut and Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash and Teklehaimanot, Berhane Fseha and Terrason, Sonyah and Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse and Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman and Thomson, Azalea M and Tohidinik, Hamid Reza and Tonelli, Marcello and Topor-Madry, Roman and Torre, Anna E and Touvier, Mathilde and Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto Roberto and Tran, Bach Xuan and Travillian, Ravensara and Troeger, Christopher E and Truelsen, Thomas Clement and Tsai, Alexander C and Tsatsakis, Aristidis and Tudor Car, Lorainne and Tyrovolas, Stefanos and Uddin, Riaz and Ullah, Saif and Undurraga, Eduardo A and Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran and Vacante, Marco and Vakilian, Alireza and Valdez, Pascual R and Varughese, Santosh and Vasankari, Tommi Juhani and Vasseghian, Yasser and Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy and Violante, Francesco S and Vlassov, Vasily and Vollset, Stein Emil and Vongpradith, Avina and Vukovic, Ana and Vukovic, Rade and Waheed, Yasir and Walters, Madgalene K and Wang, Jiayu and Wang, Yafeng and Wang, Yuan-Pang and Ward, Joseph L and Watson, Alexandrea and Wei, Jingkai and Weintraub, Robert G and Weiss, Daniel J and Weiss, Jordan and Westerman, Ronny and Whisnant, Joanna L and Whiteford, Harvey A and Wiangkham, Taweewat and Wiens, Kirsten E and Wijeratne, Tissa and Wilner, Lauren B and Wilson, Shadrach and Wojtyniak, Bogdan and Wolfe, Charles D A and Wool, Eve E and Wu, Ai-Min and Wulf Hanson, Sarah and Wunrow, Han Yong and Xu, Gelin and Xu, Rixing and Yadgir, Simon and Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Seyed Hossein and Yamagishi, Kazumasa and Yaminfirooz, Mousa and Yano, Yuichiro and Yaya, Sanni and Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid and Yearwood, Jamal A and Yeheyis, Tomas Y and Yeshitila, Yordanos Gizachew and Yip, Paul and Yonemoto, Naohiro and Yoon, Seok-Jun and Yoosefi Lebni, Javad and Younis, Mustafa Z and Younker, Theodore Patrick and Yousefi, Zabihollah and Yousefifard, Mahmoud and Yousefinezhadi, Taraneh and Yousuf, Abdilahi Yousuf and Yu, Chuanhua and Yusefzadeh, Hasan and Zahirian Moghadam, Telma and Zaki, Leila and Zaman, Sojib Bin and Zamani, Mohammad and Zamanian, Maryam and Zandian, Hamed and Zangeneh, Alireza and Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich and Zewdie, Kaleab Alemayehu and Zhang, Yunquan and Zhang, Zhi-Jiang and Zhao, Jeff T and Zhao, Yingxi and Zheng, Peng and Zhou, Maigeng and Ziapour, Arash and Zimsen, Stephanie R M and Naghavi, Mohsen and Murray, Christopher J L (2020) Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 396 (10258). pp. 1204-1222. ISSN 01406736

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Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health > WA. 900 Vital Statistics
Divisions: Faculty of Health > Department of Epidemiology
Depositing User: zeynab . bagheri
Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2020 05:44
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2020 05:44

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