The effects of two non-pharmacologic pain management methods for intramuscular injection pain in children

Hasanpour, Marzieh and Tootoonchi, Mina and Aein, Fereshteh and Yadegarfar, Ghasem (2006) The effects of two non-pharmacologic pain management methods for intramuscular injection pain in children. Acute Pain, 8 (1). pp. 7-12.


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Purpose: To study the effect of local cold therapy and distraction in pain relief using penicillin intramuscular injection in children. Methods: In this work, 90 children with ages from 5 to 12 who had penicillin injection intramuscularly in a health centre were studied. The samples were chosen randomly and divided into three groups: the first group received local cold therapy, the second group received distraction and the third group (the control group) received routine care. The data were collected through interview and questionnaire. Oucher scale was used to measure pain intensity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the findings. Results: Average pain intensity in local cold therapy, distraction, and control groups was 26.3, 34.3, and 83.3, respectively. The findings indicate that pain intensity was significantly higher in the control group than the experimental groups. Also, pain intensity among children was inversely proportional to their age. Conclusion: This study supports the efficacy of non-pharmacologic pain management methods in children. Nurses are recommended to use local cold therapy and distraction to decrease pain intensity of penicillin intramuscular injection in 5-12-year-old children. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By
Uncontrolled Keywords: penicillin G, analgesia; article; child; controlled study; cryotherapy; female; health care; human; injection pain; major clinical study; male; pain assessment; priority journal; questionnaire; rating scale; traction therapy
Subjects: WS Pediatrics
QV pharmacology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Users 1 not found.
Date Deposited: 21 Aug 2017 08:07
Last Modified: 02 Jun 2020 06:27

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